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THE YEAR 1884.




Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives concurring), That the annual re- port of the Smithsonian Institution and National Museum for the year 1884 be printed, and that there be printed 16,060 extra copies; of which 3,000 copies shall be for the use of the Senate, 6,060 for the House of Representatives, and 7,000 for the Smith- sonian Institution.

Agreed to by the House of Representatives, February 4, 1885.






The annual report of the Board of Regents of that Institution for the year 1884. ,

JANUARY 27, 1885.—Ordered to be printed.

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, Washington, D. C., January 25, 1885. Sir: In accordance with section 5593 of the Revised Statutes of the United States, I have the honor in behalf of the Board of Regents to submit to Congress the annual report of the operations, expenditures, and condition of the Smithsonian Institution for the year 1884. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, SPENCER F. BAIRD, Secretary Smithsonian Institution. Hon. G. F. EpMuNDs, . President of the Senate.

Hon. JoHN G. CARLISLE, Speaker of the House of Representatives. rie



1. Proceedings of the Board of Regents for the session of January, 1885. .

2. Report of the Executive Committee, exhibiting the financial affairs of the Institution, including a.statement of the Smithson fund, and re- ceipts and expenditures for the year 1884, and the estimates for 1885.

3. Annual report of the Secretary, giving an account of the operations and condition of the Institution for the year 1884, with the statistics of collections, exchanges, We.

4, General appendix, comprising a record of recent progress in the principal departments of science, and special memoirs, original and selected, of interest to collaborators and correspondents of the Insti- tution, teachers, and others engaged in the promotion of knowledge.

The report of the Assistant Director and Curators of the National

Museum for the year 1884 will be published in a separate volume. lV


Resolutién of Congress te print extra copies of the Report........-.-...---. Letter from the Secretary, submitting the Annual Report of the Regents to Cong Tess Bree sae ee nice oi stee sian oe ans celciouts tise mis win ate ioe nsee s wee General subjects of the Annual Report.--:-...-.---- .-2--5-2-----s-: sate Contentsrof theuReporbeeacesse atic eee Sito Seren Save renal s wists THING OLS LS br ablOns sates o.oo salostias elapse a as ao a oa noe meee aceon anion Regents of the Sunes Institution ...-.--. Se eee ome JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS OF THE BoaRD OF : REGENTS Bea Oaee ceaets REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE for the year 1884..................- Conditionof thestoundsrganuanyaleet Geb essen nae seer ae ae ee eer ee IRECEIpPUSMOrmbNe,Y Cala sere eee eee eee eee we eed reese a See e ayer XPenAiLUTes LOE ALO esy Careasse ise eee seme aia jroo ye ake cae ae Hstimatestiortheyyeah S84 sa2 55 saee sass ae ae acces eee te oes National Museum appropriations by Congress ........-.--..------------

AN PrOpiations toOmexchan Gesece aa. sas see meee is cise a elon Sete fees

AM PLO PLavions 1 OLE UNM OlOM yaa esis ea se ee eee ee sete. ieee ieee REPORT OF THE ARCHITECTS ON RECONSTRUCTION OF EASTERN PORTION OF SMITHS ONTAN |B UTLDIN Gitearcre seers soiree eins ise sve cies oisiodnneiarees Plans and views of grounds and building .-...----. pele ayo Serene Hem ten Members ex officio of the Establishment...-.......----..----- Ee eee ost eate Rerentsjandotticers;otohernstitubionys=.. eens. ereee a aeleei ee ee cee


RECESS METH SON@PAN SUNS TETU PION seer errct art ore Sasi oe a aSigicen Sia) mine aw cise Tn CROMUCLOR Yes een ee ee ene see ae Saiee Sale ct baaisieiitenes Sad ema eeree HercHenry Stabler sectsos sselseoes Hoses Set serereies = NE a te es eae es Sclentifichwriting sof ProtessOL-Henrycsscee ses ctessseio oe see ee Information relative to James Smithson..-..-..---2:.----.--.-.------- The Board of Regents. - Deh ont Sei era iN hs te rays y ome a alae tele iSe HINANCES|ES sect taesewcetecsee cess SP Pe Se Ee ec heya Se ee Condition of the fund Jone ees Ba ea ae eee as Bul dari gg eee oe Se eaciae nis ae aie ere ep allen yeaa che coals Sais Smithsonian GET isa cieta 2 Sao ange eno ear ae es IMEC OA ENG | jam thie abe coba gue peciueas ConadeEanon useeocenee B78 Kel SU UG) Deseo akoscannk SSenbnoncun sO kSEeanee Be SoUn eEES a aeaeee

AT NOLYMDOUTL GMO Wace soe ie eaereae seems Se Ses eee aaa mea Nara ae oth oats Necessity for an additional Museum anne. Bp Steins Sasa es eee Meobinssrotsciontitic bodiesesss ene ere te tee ee een Se ees WBC CLURGS eee aes citaer Perey haere ne ars Sete cee gare e Se ene e aE LOWRIE \yerolee CE Tay LEN ON Selcooons coun uocaoseasabedeG sco maue Correspondence ese serine eee ae ae eee ee nes Cee Cae Explorations: cies sos sicconsee tls care Oe -cice Be ea He sedis es SoM oe eas wales Greenland scree petersenii aoe ema epoe ies ce ninia cee acuen etl es HE ADTAC ODEs cmieiore sah eerie eiaie ae Saws Soietis cine ss Pacis cisco s was bee deticins ATCUC CONSUstwaiicewes au seviecded ccs sGecsdancaenisiecsc eues cass cone Vv


xvi Xvi XVii Xvii XVili

xix Xxili XXXIX XXXix



The North Pacilie’ cise hesaec eo co ee ee CE oe eee

British Columbia and Washington Territory -..............--..--.- Oregon‘and California: .2.52<-o2 sesso vc cael e- ee aaa eee eee Arizona and. New Mexico: 22.3-2.cs-aee co se Soe cee eases Eastern portion of the United Siatee: Hata aed ssisen amee ome a ereseeaseee Mexico and:.Central: Americ¢ans.ceso-c eee eee eee nee eee Costa Rica sss in. 252 258 se bee ee sein eee cone eae eee eee Nicaragua’. . $$. .c2s522 40s. feces os eee een ee Ee Sener meete ae South Ameritas225- j 5.2255 22 26 essence eo oe eee ae eee

Madagascar 5... 222522 Seon Be oak eatin nce aoe ania ene The:Sand wich Islands) 455.342! ac-en,-- ces tea = ste eee tee ee rao ee Publications ::22 40 lace yao oe ee re See ie ae rere EL ee ee Smithsonian Contributions to Knowlédge.-....---..---.-------- ---- Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections ....-..-...--.---..----------- Forest Trees; Saasic 32 te etc tise oe Sool see eo aad caches Bulletins of the National Museum ........-.--..-.--..-----.--. Proceedings of the National Museum ..--.---...--.:--..-.----- Smithsonian Annual deport: sees eee eee eee eee eee eee Exchang ese 525 28cfso Sas eee ae ee SEES See CO ae eee Congressional aids 2322s cece cece ences eae aise eee mee Liberality of transportation companies -....-.-.-----.---.--------- Receipts forsexchan gers. snsc-s-es ace eel ee eee nesta ee oe eeee Transmissions \i2— 3 5cssasadess «ce seke Saas menses eee nce ceeee acters Government‘exchanges 25.2 sth ence ace eee wearer eacaeeeee Daibraryr sa jscint wet sacesco an setleee ee oe eke ae eemeioees pec ece cee cee cee ees Additions for they éab cio. - ase 2s eee ane ee ice eee neice Ee eee Relations of the Institution to other bodies .-...-..---.---.----.------- Corigressic: =< ce hte eeee a Ne ae ea ee aes eno Sale eee The: Navy Department... taoceeseas ene ee a noe ae eee Naval Observatory~2: 3 -s-52cc 0 so eo cc eee eee een seco

The War Department-_..5. - 5-2-3: -2snesce Shiodoayccdo Ssascecacsone he United’ States'Stonal’Service)-- 44 -2e5csss5~ see eee

The Treasury Department.......... J dactatae tee sito be tates ae. seu TREE The Light-House Board .....-.. bis ncaitighise ot ence Saves eeene

The Interior; Department: 28s s5s- cee ee ee eee ee eee Railroad and ‘steamboat lines; <2. 2 2525250 seas e ee oe eee American Association for Advancement of Science..-...--------.--- Electrical Exhibition at Philadelphia..-..-..--.:....-....-<.-.-- 2 State and International Exhibitions. -.--- s22.2-+-+s- --------------2- INGCTOlO SY. Hess cee cee cee eee ee ee eee eee Dr.Arnold H.iGuy ob. 32. 2tsec olsen corn ee eee eee Henry Gas oor 55 <2 aes Se actece Sas soc e soe ee ee ee oe eee ee Clarence, Bs Younr 2.225255 ass ee eee ee eee Miscellaneous). 22 cscceec: oS So caee a Seine ee ee eee Edinburgh University Ter-centenary.--..-.-...---..----.---------- SONOTOUS san fesse o505 awe Sas ee te oops see See eee ene See

Telegraphic Astronomical announcements. .............222. 2025 e005 Spécial Donations to Institution ..sccccdec. sc ceessoua cack caceedaun



INVASION ACLU SE Mp ctor ates fee oreo aye e Nae ais Awe ae ae site clseren ine ces 52

BUREAUIOR: FH THNOLOG Yaere acre Sete eehe sien enantio Siecle ce meee ee ccc ssa sae 67

UNITED STATES (GEOLOGICAL SURVEY} << -\. 222): - +4212 -arqe cece seoee ee cesls sae 77

NITED STATES PISH COMMISSIONY. «<< -ilssecr- nici cc Ga agecs cance se scesa tee ae. 95

APPENDIX TO DHE REPORT OF THE SECRETARY .-2 02 -c2ese eee eae coe c oe. 99

REportoniexchanCesHOnMleedree see eee ee eee eee eee eer a eee esee 99 Receipts of packages for distribution ........-............----. ++: 101 WOLSlI A sare reese nas Soa ete anne ie ee a aee eam ene ae Sees 101 WD OMOS ULC Hersm epee aie Sate etree aes Sree ae aS Sees eae 102 Governmentrrs seis. 252 sense co ene ane ne Se eee elas oe eee ees 103 RTANSHNSSIONS Of PACK ALES tz ce\sece eee oe sae eng el eee eae ade 104 HOTOLO Me geet pare Wists ome h tees SERGE OR eee Een ee 104 ransports tony COMpaniesiencecsce senses eee eee renee ee 106 DOMestiCgsseanen ese eee Sos as A a So ee en eee 110 Government ae senor go tse be ieee re eee ee See eae 112 List of official publications from Public Printer, 1884.......-....... 113 Report on Explorations in Queen Charlotte Islands....-.............-.. 137 Report/on indexing: Chemicaleliteraturesss-2--o-o-ee eae ee oe eee eee 147 Acts and Resolutions of Congress relative to Smithsonian Institution, &c- 149 GENERAL APPENDIX.

I-— RECORD: OF SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS, 1884 3225s. e sesso ae te ceecse ee cecece 157 Imbroduction; by spencers. Baird S22. oan oe ice se see no tee 157 ASTLONOMY ps Dyas LG wardss.pELOld Ones ests ee ree ane Ace nae eee 159 Vulcanology and Seismology, by Charles G. Rockwood .- sjounhatectes 215 Geographiy~ byob Me Greenman a et ees eens ae ee 237 Meteorolopyeaby, ClovelandsAib bounce ens ee aera erie ee onan ee 257 Physics wbyaGeorgerh barker n> see ere rasa secon eon Renee Soe eee 433 Chemistry, by H. Carrington Bolton. .......-.. SO sonra he See eae mao 491 Mineralopy, Dy Md wards. Dank: = 28% ceuete fe ote ee, choc eon 543 Bibliography of Invertebrate Paleontology, by J. B. Marcou ....-..-. 563 LOOLOR YA DYN eOd OLE) Gill seme ees eee pee eres ee ara le en arerte 583 ANtHTOPO ORY, Iby~ Otis: b.eMasOn a) ones Fe aon nee setke Soe cacees Sense 677

iB CRANE OUSHP APH RS Rs ue oo = me cet ar eo an eae ele Ba) jan. Gilat eR 719 Papers relaving to Anthropologyei. 2-65-22 a2 edee ee nee ee do -s ten cos 719

Antiquities at Pantaleon, Guatemala, by Charles E. Vreeland, J. F. (Bransiord ier sce we ieptece a ey eee ae alae ene cen NS Ea 2 Ste eae Ve 719 The Guesde Collection of Antiquities in Pointe-a-Pitre, Guadeloupe, bygZO tis sy Maso na seere aoe nee eee ee as Ss cece rom ars acrareem ls 731 Ancient Mounds in Clinton County, Michigan, by M. T. Leach -..-. * 839 Ancient Forts in Ogemaw County, Michigan, by M. T. Leach-...---. 849

Sketch of Flint Ridge, Licking County, Ohio, by Charles M. Smith. 851 Earth-works and Mounds in Miami County, Ohio, by E. T. Wiltheiss. 873

INDEX to the volume ......---. Ferner en eee ateoaiey Aoiale «ies sls aeela ease oe ete asia 877




Views of the Smithsonian Institution Building: Plot Planiof thersmithsonitant Growin d sytem asta ae eee tel alee

Pl. Pl.


Plan of basement of the same PISGsPlansof firstistoryrot the samerccs ese eee ae ae eee ose ; Plan of second story of the same Pl.7. Plan of third story-of the same Plan of fourth story of the same

. South front of the Smithsonian Institution

East elevation of the re-constructed eastern portion

. North front of the Smithsonian Institution........... ..---.-----

2 3

Pl. 4. North and south elevations of the re-constructed eastern portion -- 5

Antiquities at Pantaleon, Guatemala:

Fig. 1.

Fig. Fig.

m 0 ww

Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig.

Oo om


Group of sculptures) at Rantaleon =: oss. = ssetene te soe are lio

B Stemularnevds saorashan eye 22565 debe eee e ous osen dopess Sess béoc ; Quarter view of the same <-s- ----s. .-2- ----/7- wee ene e ee cece eee a wide vilew. of bheisaMmemeccsetsae ee a oem cios nee cereect = culpturemron Pama e0 Wis=se ee aes saa aa ae oe eae

. Sculpture from Pantaleon -.---- Meiad a) ee Se Salas eee oe eee

Sideé:-view, of the same sneece nec cob Secale see Sore ele eres

TT SCulptore from anita e One sees eae reese rise eset teeter 5 SIO MeN 7 WET N EEN) = 655 Sod aa556 con s6s 5 eso Ssoesosdoubessnc Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12.

Quarter wiewsOte ble |Salmie err ratee Serene ele arog Sculpture from Pantaleon ..---...--...... Sioa sate set aes

Sculpture drom:Pantaleontes ss peesee see a eee eae sae

Guesde Collection of Antiquities from Guadeloupe :

Bios; 1-85 Unpolished stone! blades == a= -tsessecleae ee a= eee Bigs; 9-15. Polishedsstone)blad 6s aseeiemie ae seete see ee earl er

Figs. 16-47. Stone blades with continuous faces and notched sides.----.

Figs. 48-76. Stone blades with butt distinct and faces not continuous.. - Figs. 77-88. Stone blades with hooked edges .-..-. ....--...--.----=--.- Figs. 89-129. Stone blades with encircling grooves ..---..-..-.---..----

Figs. 130-172. Stone hammers, grinders, and polishers..-.... euecie 2 atstaiore Rigs ep. ertoratedystONGs se ese eames eet ieee eee Figs. 186-200. Ornamental forms of stone implements -..-..-------.---- Figs. 201, 202. Carved wooden stool from Turk’s Island..---...-...--..- Fig. 203; Human figure carved in wood ---------- --2--- -s===* - === soe

Fig. 204. Two human figures seated on chair, carved in wood (oblique front view)

i ee

Fig. 205, Oblique rear view of the same ~.----.-35-%- 2 -.26).- tee == aaaee

Figs. 206, 207. Spoon and cup, carved from guava ..---..--...---..-----

Big. 208 Inscriptionsion stoneslabe-sces eee eeee ae ses eee eee ee ees Figs. 209-214. Specimens of pottery ..............- Vive S selenite sieeie eee Wigs-216, Shelt, WIAGGY chs ve cence can nsdssuaewsnsee we wessbinuencer x

ee ry

Page. XXV XXvii Xxix XXxXi Xxxiil XXXili XXXV XXXV XXXVil


720 721 722 723 725 726 726 727 727 728 729 730

740-744 745-747 748-762 763-776 777-781 782-797

819-827 828, 829 830


Ancient Mounds in Clinton County, Michigan : Map showing locality of mounds in northwest part of Clinton County...

Ancient Forts in Ogemaw County, Michigan: Ho TaTO LAE OTt NO selects ee eerie tate cae ie eta ay petals en ake tp ee oe. Set J SARE Wa COvEM Doge RDN OSes oi eee sees ee test eaihrt ard Se aro a va ee ee

Remains from Flint Ridge, Licking County, Ohio: Map showing locality of remains at Flint Ridge.........-.....-2....---. Map showing locality of remains at Flint Ridge..._-.. ER ete etry ao Figs. 1-4. Outline of flint arrow-head forms....................-------- Figs. 5-10. Restoration of arrow-head forms ...-......-...---.---.---.-

Mounds in Miami County, Ohio: Map showing locality of earth-works -....-....-.,......----.---2-+-c---

Ix Page.


849 850

854 855 869 869



By the organizing act approved August 10, 1846, Revised Statutes, title LXxuI, section 5580, ‘‘The business of the Institution shall be con- ducted at the city of Washington by a Board of Regents, named the Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, to be composed of the Vice- President, the Chief Justice of the United States [and the Governor of the District of Columbia], three members of the Senate, and three mem- bers of the House of Representatives, together with six other persons, other than members of Congress, two of whom shall be resident in the city of Washington, and the other four shall be inhabitants of some State, but no two of the same State.”


Term expires.

The Vice-President of the United States: GEORGE F. EpMuNDs (elected President of Senate March 3, 1883).-.- - Mar. 3, 1885

The Chief Justice of the United States: MORRISON R. WAITE.

United States Senators:

NATHANTHE Js Eni (from vay 1951881) pe aeeee eae ee eee Mar. 3,1885 SAMUHI DB. MaAxnys (trom) MayatO SSD) pease eee aes eee 252) Marva, 1887 JUSTIN S. MORRILL (appointed February 21, 1883) ......---..----. Mar. 3,1885 Members of the House of Representatives : OTHO R. SINGLETON (appointed January 7, 1884)..-.........-.---- Dec. 23, 188 Wm. L. WILSON (appointed January 7,1884) ...-......----.-.---- Dec. 23, 1869 Wo. W. PHELPS (appointed January 7, 1884) ............-.-..----- Dec. 23, 1685 Citizens of Washington: ; PETER PARKER (first appointed in 1868) ....-.....-....-. Resigned Apr., 7, 1884 WILLIAM T. SHERMAN (first appointed in 1871)......-........---. Mar. 25, 1885 JANMMSIC AW RLGIN Giese. .cio eo nee A oe cee oe ORE ee ee a eee May 13, 1890 Citizens of a State: JOHN MACLEAN, of New Jersey (first appointed in 1868)........-.. Dee. 19, 1885 Asa Gray, of Massachusetts (first appointed in 1874) ...-...-..-.--- Dec. 19, 1885 HENRY CopPpkeE, of Pennsylvania (first appointed in 1874) .......-- Dec. 19, 1885 Noau Porter, of Connecticut (appointed in 1878)....-.........-- Mar. 3, 1890

MoRRISON R. WaITE, Chancellor of the Institution and President of the Board of

Regents. x


WASHINGTON, D. C., January 21, 1885.

The annual meeting of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution was held this day at half-past 10 o’clock, a. m.

Present: Hon. G. F. EDMUNDS, Hon. J. S. MORRILL, Hon. S. B. MAXEY, Hon. O. R. SINGLETON, Hon. W. L. Winson, Hon. W. W. PHELPS, Rev. Dr. JOHN MACLEAN, Rev. Dr. NOAH PORTER, Dr. HENRY CopPsE, Dr. JAMES OC. WELLING, and the Secretary, Professor BAIRD.

_ Excuses for non-attendance were read from Chief-Justice Waite, Prof. Asa Gray, and Hon. N. P. Hill.

In the absence of the Chancellor, on motion of Mr. Phelps, Dr. Por- TER was Called to the chair.

The journal of the Board was read and approved.

The Secretary stated that the Rev. Dr. NoAH PoRTER had been re-elected a Regent for six years by the joint resolution of Congress, approved March 3, 1884.

The Secretary presented to the Board the following letter :

Prof. SPENCER F. BAIRD, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution :

DEAR SiR: The state of my health renders it necessary to tender my resignation as a member of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution.

In signifying my resignation it is with no ordinary feelings I recall the years I have been connected with the Board and the distinguished men. with whom it has been my privilege and honor to be associated. Not only the present members whom I so highly respect and esteem, but a long list of honored names of former members now deceased, re- cur to me, the last of which is that of Professor JoSEPH HENRY, ‘and while JAMES SMITHSON will be known to the world and remembered as the founder of the Institution, JoseEpH HENRY will be regarded as having been raised up by a signal Providence, the true interpreter of his will, the able organizer of the Institution, and wise controller of its finances.

May the Smithsonian Institution, so auspiciously established and ex- tensively known, continue, under your wise administration, an estab- lishment distinct and specific, for the “‘ increase and diffusion of knowl. edge among men.”

With great respect, your friend and s servant, PETER PARKER.


Washington, D. 0., April 7, 1884.


The Secretary informed the Board that Congress had filled the va- cancy occasioned by the resignation of Dr. Parker by the election of Dr. JAMES C. WELLING, president of Columbian University of Wash- ington, D. C., for six years from May 13, 1884.

On motion of Dr. Maclean it was—

Resolved, That the Board of Regents has heard with regret of the resignation of Dr. Peter Parker, and hereby expresses the high appre- ciation of the valuable and efficient services he has rendered the Insti- tution for the past seventeen years as a Regent and as Chairman of its Executive Committee.

The Secretary stated that in accordance with the rules of the Board during its recess, the remaining members of the Executive Committee had filled the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Dr. Parker, by the appointment of Dr. Welling.

On motion of Dr. Coppée it was—

Resolved, That Dr. Welling be elected to fill the vacancy in the Ex- ecutive Committee.

The Secretary reported that in accordance with the request of the Board at its last meeting, Senator Edmunds had prepared a bill rela- tive to the provision for an Acting Secretary, which had passed Con- gress and become a law on the 13th of May, 1884, as follows:

An act to provide for the appointment of an Acting Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. [Public No. 31, Forty-eighth Congress, first session. ]

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Chancellor of the Smithsonian Institution may, by an instrument in writing filed in the office.of the Secretary thereof, designate and appoint a suitable person to act as Secretary of the Institution when there shall be a vacancy in said office, and whenever the Secretary shall be unable from illness, absence, or other cause to perform the duties of his office; and in such case the person so appointed may perform alJl the duties imposed on the Secretary by law until the vacancy shall be filled or such inability shou cease. The said Chancellor may change such designation and appoint- ment from time to time as the Institution may in his judgment require.

Approved, May 13, 1884.

Under the provisions of this act the Chancellor had taken the fol- lowing action:

LYME, Conn., July 2, 1884.

By virtue of the authority conferred on me by the act of May 13, 1884, ‘to provide for the appointment of an Acting Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution,” I hereby designate and appoint Mr. WILLIAM J. RHEES to act as Secretary of the Institution when there shall be a vacancy in that office, and whenever the Secretary shall be unable from illness, absence, or other cause to perform the duties of his office.

M. R. WAITE, Chancellor of the Smithsonian Institution.


Dr. Maclean presented the annual report of the Executive Commit- tee, which was read. On motion of Dr. Coppée it was—

Resolved, That the report of the Executive Committee be accepted, and that the income for the year 1855, be appropriated for the service of the Institution upon the basis of the above report; to be expended by the Secretary with full discretion as to the items, subject to the approval of the Executive Committee. |

The Secretary presented the following communication he had received since the last meeting of the Board:

JUNE 2, 1884. SPENCER F. BAIRD, Secretary Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.:

Sir: I intend to make a bequest for the advancement of science— that is, of physical science. For many reasons I would like to make the bequest in tavor of the Smithsonian Institution; but there is one difficulty which must be cleared up before I can decide. If money were left by will to the Smithsonian Institution would it defend the will against the claims of any and all persons who should contest the will and take legal. steps to set it aside? Has it authority by law; has it funds that it would be authorized to use for the purpose of defending a will in its favor? As I have no children the Will would be less likely to be contested, but there are others who might attempt to set it aside. For this reason what I wish above all to be assured of is that any legacy that I leave for the purpose named will not be given up without making a fight of it if needful. Please explain this point.

I wish you to send me a form of words, the very words themselves, in which a bequest should be made so that there could be no pretense of setting it aside for vagueness; and that will carry out my intentions, which I will explain:

The chief part I would desire to bequeath to the Institution would be for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men,” and beside vould wish to have the Institution invest say $300 (is that too insig- ‘ificant for the purpose?) and use the income thereof for conferring a

old medal either annually or biennially (which would be the better ?) us the person who had made the most important discovery in physical science during the year, or two years ending, say a year before the date of conferring the medal. For example, the Regents would have to decide, say in the month of December, 1883, who made the most im- portant discovery in physical science during the year, or two years, ending December 31, 1882. If you have my meaning put it in language that will make it perfectly clear without multiplying words.

The medal not for any patented invention, like the electric light, for example, but especially and only for such discoveries as Pasteur on in- fection, fermentation, &c., and G. Darwin’s on tidal action. Regents to be sole judges as to what is meant by physical science and most im- portant discoveries therein.

The reason why I would like to have not only suggestions and ex- planations but the full “I will and bequest to” is also because I don’t know whether to say the Regents shall do this or that, or whether to say a majority or quorum of them shall do it in order to make it both strictly legal and also practicable; also, whether or not it is necessary to say how the Regents shall invest the money. I suppose a copy of that part


of Hamilton’s or Huebus’ (Habel ?) will would answer for the part re- lating to the “increase and diffusion,” &c. As for the medal I believe no fund has been left to institutions for that purpose, and I should like to have your opinion on it.

Please return this letter with your answer, which I would like you to let me have as soon as you can; taking, however, all the time you need to make it so full and explicit that no further correspondence will be necessary at this stage. I mean business if your answer is satisfactory. For the present I desire this affair to be treated as confidential, or if necessary to mention to other parties, withhold the name.

There is one thing [I had rather do than make a bequest in favor of the Institution, namely, pay over a certain sum, say $2,000 or $2,500, in trust to the Regents; provided I could receive the income during life, the Institution to have the sole use and possession of the same after my death. Would the Institution be authorized to accept a sum of money on such terms ?


* «+ j%*£ *

After full discussion of the subject it was, on motionof Mr. Edmunds—

Resolved, That the communication be referred to the Executive Com- mittee with full power to act in relation to it.

The Secretary, Professor Baird, presented his annual report of the operations of the institution for the year 1884, which was read in part.

On motion of Dr. Maclean, the Secretary was instructed to transmit the report to Congress.

On motion of Mr. Edmunds, it was—

Resolved (1), That the fiscal year of the Institution shall hereafter ter- minate on the 30th day of June in each year.

(2) That the Secretary shall hereafter prepare and cause to be printed and sent to each member of the Board on or before the first day of De- cember in each year, his annual report.

(3) That the annual meeting of the Board of Regents shall hereafter be held on the second Wednesday in January in each year.

The Board then adjourned sine die. a



The Executive Committee of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution respectfully submit the following report in relation to the funds of the Institution, the appropriations by Congress for the National Museum and other purposes, the receipts and expenditures for the In- stitution and the Museum, for 1884, and the estimates for the year 1885.

Condition of the fund January 3, 1885.

The amount of the bequest of James Smithson deposited

in the Treasury of the United States (act of Congress

PATO St) 10; SAG) ee ao) cert Sek oe erate Saree Se ea .... $515,169 00 Residuary legacy of Smithson, added to the fund, deposited

in the Treasury of the United States (act of Congress

Mehruary. Os lS8O0) ces. ans oe ae cee ewe tates un Sele S 26,210 63 Addition to the fund from savings, &e. (act oe Congress MCDGLRADY On OOM) crease. eeiyar ise veise bee aren foane ts 5 108, 620 37 Addition to the fund by bequests Of James Hamilton, of onmsy ly anita (S84) cris sence $c apc ie 2 Sicieueicisy sian aisle eoeie ine 1,000 00 Addition to the fund by bequest of Simeon Habel, of New Aenea (USS Oat pens eee Sonat er Bak Ue coe os 500 00 Addition to the fund by neoeeods of sale of Virginia bonds ‘. (Cisckes BAS etal bee a or UE pe le ea a ae Pane a 51,500 00 r g Total permanent Smithson fund in the Treasury of Hes the United States, bearing interest at 6 per cent. DORSAL NAG se es te eh ay es an oe Stee ene a $703,000 00

Statement of the receipts and expenditures of the Smithsonian Institution For the year 1884.

RECEIPTS. Interest on the Smithson fund.. -...-..-.. . $42,180 00 Repayment of expenses of freight, &c., on Henry statue, by act of Congress.......... 900 00 Balance cash on hand January 1, 1884....... 25,914 20 TOtATECEIPUES: pees ee ae es eee eye ee be hae iencis $68, 994 20


EXPENDITURES. Building : Repairs and improvements..........--...-.. $2,205 74 Furniture and fixtures... -....-.-. .----:---- 2,423 90 ————__ $4, 629 64 General expenses : Meetings of the Board......--. Ae ae See 469 75 Postage and telecraph: 2.22 2-15 2 337 44 Stablonery . S28 Hiks ck os ios rn eee 522. 82 General printing, blanks, &c .........--...... 922 58 Incidentals, horse, carriage, gas, &c.......-. 1, 250 00 Books, periodicals, and binding . sh, See ei AE DZO GAD Salaries, Secretary, clerks, PG: ona laOP > 2 v4.14 Leste einesio ey eee ere ee 16,591 19 ——_— 22; 622 03: Publications and researches : bni-ai Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge.... 3, 100 93 Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. --. --. 4,939 59 +99 Dasom Smithsonian Annual Report ........... --.. 2, 834 53 isl OnatONS ees el as eee eee 2,881 16 Mp paracus: jac ieee a ee eee eee 94 77 Literary and scientific exchanges in addition to appropriation by Congress .......:....- 2,510 71 ; —— 16,361 69 Total expenditures . 22; o- seceece = eee aren el 43,613 36 Balance, January, 1880 22-- 22 eee $25, 380 84


The following are the estimates of receipts by the Institution for the year 1885, and of the appropriations required for carrying on its opera- tions during the same period:

Receipts. Interest on the permanent fund receivable July 1, 1885, and Jantiary ly lS86e2 2S ei crmctencpieyere aes ieee $42, 180 00 Expenditures. For building and.repairs..--...--..--..----.---.----<s $1, 500 00 For general expenses, including salaries...-...--.-.----- 23, 000 00 For Publications and researches:.......-..----...--- -oec AZ, 008 00 For DxcChan@este- <<): 2a cite on seo oe a eee = 3, 000 00 For Contingencies (-\.ie 015 << 2 eee ieee s Sateen 2, 680 00

Total ea. IRS AG Galas Beat ng att le $42, 180 00



The following appropriations were made at the first session of the Forty-eighth Congress for the National Museum, and other objects com- mitted to the care of the Smithsonian Institution:

For the preservation and exhibition and in-

crease of the collections received from the

surveying and exploring expeditions of the

Government, and other sources, including

salaries or compensation of all necessary

CHV ORE Sra co Os Se ve els aes Aer eee rye $91, 000 00 For transfer and arrangement of the collec-

tions of the American Institute of Mining

peters presented to the Government,

iuc!u ling expenses already incurred....... 10, 000 00 For expense of heating, lighting, and telepho-

__cuirieal service for the new Museum building eee Ppt Reb eT EN. Liat Sue, NS eberaee sal Steve 6,000 00 $107,000 00 For care of the Armory building and grounds and expense

of watching, preservation, and storage of the duplicate

collections of the Government, and of the property of

the United States Fish Commission contained therein,

including salaries or compensation of all necessary em-

For cases, furniture, and fixtures required for the exhibi- tion of the collections of the United States National Mu- seum, and for salaries or compensation of all necessary BM PLO ES a seb eeee ieee nee ee ereiie ss were ee og a gives 40,000 00

For the expenses of an international exchange of books,

documents, and productions of the United States with

foreign countries, in accordance with the Paris conven-

tion of 1877, including salaries and compensation to all

necessary employés, to be expended under the direction

of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution ........ 10,000 00 For finishing, heating, gas-fitting, plumbing, and com-

pletely furnishing the eastern portion of the Smithsonian

Institution, and for finishing the fourth and fifth stories,

including liabilities already incurred ......-.. ..-...- 15, 000 00 For paving sidewalk on south and east fronts of National Nirsearnab mil in Gee ey sk Me ase SS ooo lee eee ce 1, 000 00

For expense of freight on statue of Joseph Henry from Rome to Washington, and all expenses by the Smith- sonian Institution connected with the erection and cere- monies of unveiling said statue .......... ..--..-.--.- 900 00 S. Mis. 33——11


For the purpose of continuing ethnological researches among the American Indians, under the direction of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, including sala- ries and compensation of all necessary employés

$40, 000 00

Exhibit of condition of appropriations by Congress for National Museum, §c., January 1,

1885. Appropriated) Total avail- Balance Balance for fiscal able from Expended | January 1, Object. January 1, |year 1884~’85,| January 1, | inthe year | 1885, avail- 1884. act July 7, | 1884, toJune 1884. able till June 1884. 30, 1885. 0, Preservation of collections, | National Museum ...-.- .-.- $46, 658 51 | $107,000 00 $153, 658 51! $100,259 24 | $53, 399 27 Armory Building, National | | Muséumie 5.22 ncs- oca- eae 1752550 2,500 00 4,025 50 2, 525 00 | 1, 500 50 Furniture and fixtures, Na- tional Museum ......----.. 36, 020 49 40,000 00 76, 020 49 63,384 13 12, 636 36 International Exchanges... --. 3, 500 00 10, 000 00 13, 500 00 7,705 50 5, 794 50 Reconstruction eastern por- tion Smithsonian building. -- 12, 677 14 15, 000 00 27, 677 14 26, 378 92 1, 298 22 Paving sidewalk, National NMETISG LI eee ce ete ea | eee eae 1,090 00 TS000) 00 poem 1,000 00 North American Ethnology... 19, 945 40 40, 000 00 59, 945 40 40,419 78 | 19, 525 62

The balance (January 1, 1884), $802.17, of the appropriation for pre- paring the scientific report of the Polaris expedition, has been expended during the year, according to the certificate of Major Hobbs, October 6, 1884, disbursing clerk of the Treasury Department.

The appropriation by Congress of $900 to reimburse the Institution for its expenditures in connection with the Henry statue, was received from the Treasury Department in October, 1884, and is included in the statement of receipts for the year.

The committee has examined the vouchers for payments made from the Smithson income during the year 1884, all of which bear the ap- proval of the Secretary of the Institution, and a certificate that the materials and services charged were applied to the purposes of the Institution.

The committee has also examined the accounts of the National Museum and find that the balances above given correspond with the certificates of the disbursing officers of the Interior and Treasury De- partments.

The quarterly and annual accounts-current, the check-books and journals have been examined and found correct.

Respectfully submitted. JOHN MACLEAN,


Hxecutive Committee. WASHINGTON, January, 1885.

Dr. Maclean’s examination of the expenditures and vouchers was limited to those of the Smithsonian Institution proper.


Prof. 8. F. BAIRD, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution : :

Sir: We have the honor to submit a report of the operations pertain- ing to the fire-proof reconstruction of the east portion of the Smithson- ian building, which was commenced in the month of April, 1883, and completed during the last year.

For a proper understanding of the conditions under which this work was executed it may be well to recall a few steps in the life of the whole building.

On the 28th of January, 1847, the plans of James Renwick, esq., of New York, were adopted, bids for the completion of the whole building were invited, the work awarded on the 9th of March, and the corner- stone laid on the 1st of May following. Five years were stipulated for the completion of the work under the building contract.

On the 26th of February, 1850, the interior framing and floors of part of the center building, intended to contain the museum of apparatus, fell down into the basement before completion, and on July 3, 1850, a committee of the Regents of the Institution reported “that the interior of the main building is defective in the kind of material originally adopted and to a considerable degree in the quality of the material em- ployed, which consists principally of wood. The money was mainly expended upon the cut-stone work of the fronts.” The committee rec- ommended “that the interior of the center building be removed and that a fire-proof structure be substituted for it.”

In January, 1853, the plans of Capt. B. S. Alexander, U.S. A., for fire- proofing and finishing the interior of the center building were adopted, and the author of the plans intrusted with the superintendence of this work, which was commenced in June, 1853, and completed in Decem- ber, 1854. It included a lecture room with unsurpassed optical and acoustic properties, accommodating 1,800 persons. Unfortunately for the building the term “fire-proofing” had in those days simply refer- ence to floors and walls, so that the fire-proofed center building still retained a combustible wooden roof, like all other public buildings erected about the same time.

A fire occurred on the 24th of January, 1865, which destroyed this roof, and with it all the interior of the upper story of the main building and the adjacent towers. The executive committee of the Regents re-



ported that careful survey forced upon them the conviction that “the original construction of the building as a whole was very defective and unsuited as a receptacle of valuable records. The two wings and con- necting ranges, which were not injured by the fire, are defective in ma- terial and construction. The floors in some cases, though covered with flagging, rest upon wooden beams, which are decayed, and in a few years the interior of these parts will require removal.”

The Regents decided that the restoration should in all parts be inde- structible by fire, and intrusted Adolf Cluss, architect, with the plans and superintendence of the work, which was carried on shortly after the close of the war, when material and labor had risen to the highest mark.

The second story of the center building was fitted up as a hall for Government collections, and was covered with an iron and slate roof; five towers were fitted up with iron and brick floors, partitions, and roofs, and with iron stairs. This work was completed in the season of 1867. Fire-proof floors were substituted in 1871 for the decayed lower wooden floors of the west wing and of the northwest arcade, and in 1873 a steam- heating apparatus was put in the building.

The east wing, then called the chemical wing, was originally arranged for one large lecture-room, provided with seats for 1,000 persons, and the adjoining range was fitted up for two apparatus-rooms in close prox- imity with the lecturers’ table. When the improved lecture-room in the main building was completed in 1854 there was no longer any use for the now antiquated room which absorbed the whole east wing. Hence, this wing was temporarily divided into two stories, with wooden floors, and studded, lathed,