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1887 VOL. XX.

(Third of New Series)





Issued May, 1888





Page 17, line 12, for " Trichophyra" read " Tricophrya." Page 210, footnote, for " debilio" read " debilior."


The following has been received from Professor T. Jeffery Parker, as an addendum to bis paper " On a Specimen of Rega- lecus recently stranded in Otago Harbour " (see pp. 20-29) :

I regret having missed hitherto an important figure and description of Regalecus by Mr. E. L. Layard, in the " Proceedings of the Zoological Society" for May 28th, 1868. The specimen is called Gymnetrus capensis (?) and was 10 feet 2 inches long. The ventral fins were perfect, and show both the terminal cutaneous expansion and the small dorsal lobe figured by Cuvier, at the junction of the middle and posterior thirds. The general features of tbe crest are correctly shown, and the pink spots on it are men- tioned.

Everything seems to lead to the conclusion that most of the supposed species of Regalecus are identical, and that the more recent specific names (including argenteus) will have to give way, probably in favour of Ascanius's original name, glesne.



I. Zoology.


Art. I. On the Freshwater Infusoria of the Wellington District.

By W. M. Maskell, F.R.M.S. . . . . . . 3—19

II. On a Specimen of Regalecus recently stranded in Otago Harbour. By T. Jeffery Parker, B.Sc, C.M.Z.S., Professor of Biology in the University of Otago . . 20 29

III. Ornithological Notes. By T. W. Kirk (of the Geological

Survey Department) . . . . . . . . 29 31

IV. On a curious Parasite (Anthosoma smithii, Leach) from

the Porbeagle Shark (Lamna cornubica). By T. W.

Kirk .. .. .. .. .. 31—33

V. On the Occurrence of the Masked Plover (Lobivanellus personatus, Gould) in New Zealand. By T. W. Kirk .. .. .. .. .. 33—34

VI. Brief Description of a new Species of large Decapod

(Architeuthis longimanus). By T. W. Kirk .. 34 39

VII. Note on the Female of Anas boschas assuming the

Plumage of the Male. By Taylor White . . 39

VIII. A Description of a new Species of Coccinella found in

New Zealand. By W. Colenso, F.R.S., F.L.S., etc. 40—42 IX. Note on the Bat that invaded Picton in March, 1884.

By Professor F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. . . . . 43

X. Description of a new Land Shell from the Province of

Nelson. By Professor F. W. Hutton .. .. 43—44

XL Supplement to a Monograph of New Zealand Noctuina.

By E. Meyrick, B.A., F.E.S. .. .. .. 44—47

XII. Notes on New Zealand Geometrina. By E. Meyrick . . 47—62

XIII. Notes on New Zealand Pyralidina. By E. Meyrick . . 62—73

XIV. Notes on New Zealand Tortricina. By E. Meyrick .. 73—76 XV. Descriptions of New Zealand Tineina. By E. Meyrick 77 106

XVI. On Henops brunneus, Hutton. By W. M. Maskell,

F.E.M.S. .. .. .. .. .. 106—108

XVII. On new Species of Araneidea. By A. T. TJrquhart . . 109—125 XVIII. Notes on Bats. By A. Beischek, F.L.S. . . . . 125—126

XIX. List of Fishes found round the Mokohinou Islands ; their Spawning Time ; and Observations regarding some of the Species. By F. S. Sandager . . 127 133

XX. Descriptions of new Species of New Zealand Aranece.

By P. Goyen . . . . . . . . 133—139

XXI. Notes on Amaurobwides maritima, Cambridge. By P.

Goyen .. .. .. .. .. 140




II.- Botany. PAGES#

Art.XXII. Notes on the Three Kings Islands. By T. F. Cheese- man, F.L.S. .. .. .. .. 141—150

XXIII. On the Flora of the Kermadec Islands ; with Notes on

the Fauna. By T. F. Cheeseman . . . . 151—181

XXIV. On the Naturalized Dodders and Broom-rapes of New

Zealand. By T. Kirk . . . . . . 182—185

XXV. Description of a new Species of Vncinia, Persoon. By

D. Petrie, M.A., F.L.S. . . . . . . 185—186

XXVI. Kate of Growth of Transplanted Trees. By J. Baber,

C.E. .. .. .. .. .. 186—187

XXVn. On new Phasnogarnic Plants of New Zealand. By

William Colenso, F.E.S., F.L.S., etc. .. ..188—211

XXVIII. On newly-discovered and imperfectly-known Ferns of New Zealand, with Critical Observations. By W. Colenso .. .. .. .. .. 212—234

XXIX. On new Indigenous Cryptogams, of the Orders Lyco-

podiacece, Musci, and Hepaticce. By W. Colenso.. 234 254 XXX. Botanical Notes. By J. Buchanan, F.L.S. . . . . 255

III. Geology.

XXXI. On some Kailway Cuttings in the Weka Pass. By Pro- fessor F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. . . . . . . 257—263

XXXII. On the Greensands of the Waihao Forks. By Pro- fessor F. W. Hutton . . . . . . . . 264—267

XXXIII. On some Fossils lately obtained from the Cobden

Limestone at Greymouth. By Professor F. W.

Huttop .. .. .. .. .. 267—269

XXXIV. On some ancient Ehyolites from the Mataura District.

By Professor F. W. Hutton . . . . . . 269—271

XXXV. On a Leucophyre from the Selwyn Gorge. By Pro- fessor F. W. Hutton, F.G.S., and G. Gray, F.C.S., Lecturer on Chemistry at the School of Agricul- ture, Lincoln . . . . . . . . 271—274

XXXVI. On the Oxford Chalk Deposit, Canterbury, New Zea- land. By Henry Wilson, B.A. . . . . 274—276

XXXVII. The Tarawera Eruption, 10th June, 1886 : a Criticism of Professor Hutton's (and others') Explanations of the Causes of the Eruption. By J. Hardcastle 277—282 XXXVIII. On the Artesian Well System of Hawke's Bay. By H.

Hill, B.A., F.G.S. .. .. .. .. 282—293

XXXIX. Pumice : its Geological Distribution on the East Coast of the North Island of New Zealand, extending from Tologa Bay (38° 20' S. lat.) to Cape Turn- again (40° 30' S.). By H. Hill, B.A., F.G.S. . . 293—306 XL. Notes on the Volcanic Rocks of the Taupo District and King Country. By Professor A. P. W. Thomas, M.A., F.L.S. .. .. .. .. 306—311

XLI. Notes on the Hocks of the Kermadec Islands. By A. P. W. Thomas, M.A., F.L.S., Professor of Natu- ral Science in the Auckland University College . . 311 315 XLII. Notes on the Physiography and Geology of the King

Country. By Laurence Cussen . . . . 316 332

XLIII. Geological Notes on the Kermadec Group. By S. Percy

Smith, F.R.G.S. .. .. .. ..333—344

XLIV. Minerals at Nelson. By H. P. Washboume. . . . 344—352

Contents. vii.

IV. Miscellaneous.


Akt.XLV. Ancient Alphabets in Polynesia. By E. Tregear,

F.R.G.S. . . . . . . . . . . 353 368

XL VI. Polynesian Folk-lore.— Part H. : The Origin of Fire.

By E. Tregear . . . . . . . . 369—399

XL VII. The Aryo-Semitic Maori : a Eeply. By E. Tregear . . 400—413 XL VIII. On Maori Ancestry. By James Coutts Crawford, F.G.S. 414—418 XLIX. Ancient Tide-lore, and Tales of the Sea, from the two Ends of the World. By W. Colenso, F.R.S., F.L.S., etc. . . .. .. .. ..418—422

L. Notes on the Derelict Ship in Facile Harbour, Dusky

Bay. By T. M. Hocken, M.R.C.S., F.L.S. . . 422—428

LI. On a Stereoscopic Aspect of the Moon. By J. Hard- castle . . . . . . . . . . 428

LII. On the Etymology of the word " dierectus," in Plautus.

By Professor F. W. Haslam, M.A. . . . . 429—430


Nineteenth Annual Report . . . . . . . . . . 433 434

Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435



Anniversary Address. By Dr. F. B. Hutchinson, M.R.C.S. . . 439

Geological Specimens exhibited . . . . . . . . 439 440

Notes on Forestry. By J. S. Prendeville . . . . . . 440

Recent Explorations North of Chalky Sound, West Coast of Otago.

By A. Reischek . . . . . . . . . . 441

Exploration of Dusky Sound by Mr. Docherty . . . . . . 442

On the Occurrence of Black Sulphur in the Native State. By Sir

J. Hector .. .. .. .. .. .. 442

Remarks on Specimens collected by Professor Hutton from the

Auriferous Deposit at Te Aroha . . . . . . . . 442

Exhibit of live Helices . . . . . . ... . . 443

On the Importance of Tide-gauges, and Description of a simple

Tide-gauge invented by the Author. By Sir J. Hector . . 443—444 Extraordinary Discovery regarding Generation in Insects. By

W. M. Maskell, F.R.M.S. .. .. .. ..444—445

Exhibit, illustrative of Propagation of Alga . . . . . . 445— 446

Exhibit of a rare Diatom (Stauroneis fulmen) .. .. .. 446

Exhibit of Photograph of Prismatic Solar Spectrum on a Chloro-

phyl plate .. .. .. .. .. .. 446

Remarks on a Collection of Rocks from the Kermadec Islands,

made by Captain Fairchild. By Sir J. Hector . . . . 446

On a small-sized Specimen of the Hapuka, Hectoria (Oligorus)

gigas, Castelneau, caught in Wellington Harbour. By Sir J.

Hector .. .. .. .. .. ' .. 446—447

Notice of a Giant Sun-fish (Orthagoriscus mola) cast ashore at

Cape Campbell. By A. Hanson . . . . . . . . 447

viii. C i intents.


Barbados, our earliest tropical Colony. By the Hon. J. W.

Fortescue . . . . . . . . . . . . 447—448

On some deep-seated Fallacies. By W. W. Carlile, M.A. . . 448—449

Notice of a Discovery of Illuminating Gas. By J. C. Crawford,

F.G.S. .. .. .. .. .. .. 449

On the Korotangi, or Stone Bird. By Major Wilson ; communi- cated by Mr. Tregear . . . . . . . . . . 450

On Bed Deer and their Ways. By the Hon. J. W. Fortescue . 450

On Earthquakes in New Zealand. By Sir J. Hector . . . . 450 452

Probable Discovery of the Physical Causation of Gravitation. By

T. Wakelin, B.A. .. .. .. .. .. 452

On the Occurrence of Bismuthic Gold at the Owen Goldfields. By

William Skey . . . . . . . . . . . . 453—454

On the General Association of Grains of Gold with Native Copper.

By William Skey . . . . . . . . . . 454

On the Formation of Bismuthic Iodides of the Alkaloids. By

William Skey . . . . . . . . . . . . 454

Complimentary Resolution to the President, Dr. Hutchinson . . 455

Annual Report and Accounts . . . . . . . . 455 456

Election of Officers . . . . . . . . . . 456

Some Moot Points in Mental Science. By W. W. Carlile, M.A. . . 456—457 On the Occurrence of Morchella esculenta. By T. Kirk, F.L.S. . . 457

On the Hessian Fly. By W. M. Maskell, F.R.M.S. .. .. 457

On Bladder Fluke in Rabbits. By Sir J. Hector . . . . 457


Description of a Collection of Maori Articles bequeathed to the

Museum by Mr. C. 0. Davis. By T. F. Cheeseman . . 458

On two new Species of Metaglymma. By Captain T. Broun . . 458

New Experiments on the Nature of Colour. By B. W.'Betts . . 45s

Pauperizing the People. By E. A. Mackechnie .. .. 458

The Extraction of Metals from their Ores. Ry Professor F. D.

Brown . . . . . . . . . . . . 458

Notes on Hot Springs at Great Barrier Island. By C. P. Winkel-

mann .. .. .. .. .. .. 459

On the Nature of Government, with Special Reference to Property

in Land. By J. Buchanan . . . . . . . . 459

Foods and Beverages. By J. A. Pond . . . . . . 459

New Genera and Species of Plant-eating Colcoptcva. By Captain

T. Broun . . . . . . . . . . . . 459

Personal Representation : a Modification of Hare's System. By

Professor Aldis . . . . . . . . . . 459

Brains and Character. By Dr. Bond . . . . . . 459

New Species of S Up hidde. By Captain T. Broun .. .. 460

On the Age of the Deposits in Kent's Cavern, as an Index of the

Age of Ethnological and Zoological Remains. By the Rev.

Mr. Tebbs The Whence of the Maori. By W. H. Blyth. . New Species of Pselaphidce. By Captain T. Broun Abstract of Annual Report Election of Officers for 1888. .

160 460 460 460—461 461


Election of a Councillor .. .. .. .. .. 462

Note on two Volcanic Rocks from near Westport. By Professor

F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. .. .. .. .. .. 462

On Reason and Instinct. By the President . . . . . . 462



On Lord Shaftesbury's " Inquiry into Virtue " and the Utilitarian

Theory of Morals. By W. Dinwiddie On a Theory of Bird-Might. By J. Warburton ; communicated by

Professor Hutton Abstract of Annual Report Election of Officers for 1888 Address In Memoriam Sir Julius von Haast. By the President . .


By Max Muret

By the Rev. H. Belcher,

Description of a new Bowing Apparatus. On the Middle Voice in the Latin Verb.

LL.D. Notes of an Expedition to the Big Bay District. By B. Paulin On Haworth's Patent Safety Cage. By G. J. Binns, F.G.S. An Account of Recent Researches on the Pineal Gland and the

Median Eye of Vertebrates. By T. Jeffery Parker . . The History of the Otago Settlement. By Dr. Hocken . . The Theatre of the Greeks. By the Rev. Dr. Belcher . . Notes on New Zealand Crustacea. By G. M. Thomson, F.L.S Notes on Additions to the Museum. By Professor T. Jeffery

Parker Abstract of Annual Report . . Election of Officers for 1888 Address by the President


Abstract of Annual Report Election of Officers for 1887-88



464 464 464 464


465 465 465

466 466 466 467

467 468 468 468

469 469


Notes on a Collection of Mineral Ores. By A. Hamilton . . 470

Notes on Exhibits. By W. Colenso, F.R.S. . . . . . . 471

On Olfactory Physics. By W. I. Spencer . . . . . . 471

A Jubilee Paper; or, Fifty Years in New Zealand. By W.

Colenso, F.R.S. .. .. .. .. .. 471

On some Marine Invertebrates of Hawke's Bay. By A. Hamilton 471

Notes on Additions to the Museum. By A. Hamilton . . . . 472

Election of Officers for 1888.. .. .. .. .. 472


On the Structure of Matter. On the Tarawera Eruption.

By A. Highton, B.A. By W. S. Hamilton


Notes on Exhibits. By A. S. Atkinson

On a new Species of Dodder. By J. Meeson, B.A.

A few Suggestions on Matter and Energy. By W. Wells

Resolution to form a School of Mines

Notes on Natural History. By J. Martin, jun.

On a recent Ascent of Mount Arthur and Mount Peel. By Dr. Hudson

Measurable Vibrations in Fluids, as suggestive of those only con- ceivable in Ether. By G. Ashcroft

On Yeast, By Dr. Key worth

Presentation to Museum



474 474 474 474 474


475 475 475



Notes of a Visit to the District affected by the Volcanic Eruption

of 1886. By J. Holloway The Genesis of Genius. By H. L. Twisleton On a living Specimen of Lamprey. By R. T. Kingsley . . On some curious Carvings on a Kock at Chatham Island. By

T. H. Pott Abstract of Annual Report Election of Officers for 1887-88 Address by the President

A Few Experiences of Fijian Life. By W. E. Atkinson On GraptolitidcE. By R. T. Kingsley


475 476 476


476 476 476—478 478 479


Meteorological Statistics for 1887

Notes on the Weather for 1887

Earthquakes reported in New Zealand during 1887

Honorary Members of the New Zealand Institute

Ordinary Members of the New Zealand Institute

Institutions and Individuals to whom this Volume is presented

Alphabetical Index

Errata et Addendum


List of Plates

Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute

Abstract of Rules and Statutes of the New Zealand Institute

Officers of Incorporated Societies, and Extracts from the Rules









v. x.



xiii. xv.

xvi.— xix.
























Author. Maskell et al. Freshwater Infusoria

Parker. Regalecus

T. W. Kirk. Anthosoma smithii

,, ' Architeuthis longimanus

Maskell. Henops brunneus Urquhart. Araneidea Buchanan. —Ranunculus tenuis ,, Notothlaspi hookeri

Hutton. Geology of Weka Pass Wilson. Diagram Hill. Artesian Well System of Hawke's Bay

>> ....

Map showing Distribution of Pumice Cussen. Map of Lake Taupo Tregear. Specimens of Tattoo Hocken. Derelict Ship Beischek. Map of Becent Explorations



8 12 16 24 32

I 38

108 112

[ 255

257 276

[ 284


320 353 424 441



Board of Governors, (ex officio.) His Excellency the Governor. [ The Hon. the Colonial Secretary.

(nominated.) The Hon. W. B. D. Mantell, F.G.S. ; W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S. ; Sir James Hector, K.C.M.G., M.D., F.B.S. ; Ven. Arch- deacon Stock, B.A. ; Thomas Mason ; the Hon. G. M. Waterhouse, M.L.C.

(elected.) 1888.— F. B. Hutchinson, M.B.C.S. ; James McKerrow, F.B.A.S. ; T. Kirk, F.L.S.

Manager : Sir James Hector.

Honorary Treasurer: W. T. L. Travers.

Secretary : B. B. Gore.


Gazetted in the " New Zealand Gazette, ' 9th March, 1868.

Section I.

Incorporation of Societies.

1. No Society shall be incorporated with the Institute under the pro- visions of " The New Zealand Institute Act, 1867," unless such Society shall consist of not less than twenty-five members, subscribing in the aggregate a sum of not less than fifty pounds sterling annually, for the promotion of Art, Science, or such other branch of knowledge for which it is associated, to be from time to time certified to the satisfaction of the Board of Governors of the Institute by the Chairman for the time being of the Society.

xiv. New Zealand Institute.

2. Any Society incorporated as aforesaid shall cease to be incorporated with the Institute in case the number of the members of the said Society shall at any time become less than twenty-five, or the amount of money annually subscribed by such members shall at any time be less than £50.

3. The by-laws of every Society to be incorporated as aforesaid shall provide for the expenditure of not less than one-third of the annual revenue in or towards the formation or support of some local public Museum or Library ; or otherwise shall provide for the contribution of not less than one-sixth of its said revenue towards the extension and maintenance of the Museum and Library of the New Zealand Institute.

4. Any Society incorporated as aforesaid, which shall in any one year fail to expend the proportion of revenue affixed in manner provided by Bule 3 aforesaid, shall from thenceforth cease to be incorporated with the Institute.

5. All papers read before any Society for the time being incorporated with the Institute shall be deemed to be communications to the Institute, and may then be published as Proceedings or Transactions of the Institute, subject to the following regulations of the Board of the Institute regarding publications :

Regulations regarding Publications.

(a.) The publications of the Institute shall consist of a current abstract of the proceedings of the Societies for the time being incorporated with the Institute, to be intituled, " Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute," and of transactions, comprising papers read before the Incorporated Societies (subject, however, to selection as hereinafter mentioned), to be intituled, "Transactions of the New Zealand Institute."

(b.) The Institute shall have power to reject any papers read before any of the Incorporated Societies.

(c.) Papers so rejected will be returned to the Society in which they were read.

(d.) A proportional contribution may be required from each Society towards the cost of publishing the Proceedings and Transactions of the Institute.

(e.) Each Incorporated Society will be entitled to receive a proportional number of copies of the Proceedings and Transactions of the Institute, to be from time to time fixed by the Board of Governors.

(/.) Extra copies will be issued to any of the members of Incorporated Societies at the cost price of publication.

6. All property accumulated by or with funds derived from Incorporated Societies and placed in the charge of the Institute, shall be vested in the Institute, and be used and applied at the discretion of the Board of Governors for public advantage, in like manner with any other of the property of the Institute.

7. Subject to " The New Zealand Institute Act, 1867," and to the fore- going rules, all Societies incorporated with the Institute shall be entitled to retain or alter their own form of constitution and the by-laws for their own management, and shall conduct their own affairs.

8. Upon application signed by the Chairman and countersigned by the Secretary of any Society, accompanied by the certificate required under Bule No. 1, a certificate of incorporation will be granted under the Seal of the Institute, and will remain in force as long as the foregoing rules of the Institute are complied with by the Society.

Section II. For the Management of tlie Property of the Institute.

9. All donations by Societies, Public Departments, or Private Indivi- duals to the Museum of the Institute, shall be acknowledged by a printed form of receipt, and shall be duly entered in the books of the Institute

Abstracts of Bules and Statutes. xv.

provided for that purpose, arid shall then be dealt with as the Board of Governors may direct.

10. Deposits of articles for the Museum may be accepted by the Insti- tute, subject to a fortnight's notice of removal to be given either by the owner of the articles or by the Manager of the Institute, and such deposits shall be duly entered in a separate catalogue.

11. Books relating to Natural Science may be deposited in the Library of the Institute, subject to the following conditions :

(a.) Such books are not to be withdrawn by the owner under six months' notice, if such notice shall be required by the Board of Governors.

(b.) Any funds specially expended on binding and preserving such deposited books, at the request of the depositor, shall be charged against the books, and must be refunded to the Institute before their withdrawal, always subject to special arrangements made with the Board of Governors at the time of deposit.

(c.) No books deposited in the Library of the Institute shall be removed for temporary use, except on the written authority or receipt of the owner, and then only for a period not exceeding seven days at any one time.

12. All books in the Library of the Institute shall be duly entered in a catalogue, which shall be accessible to the public.

13. The public shall be admitted to the use of the Museum and Library, subject to by-laws to be framed by the Board.

Section III.

The Laboratory shall, for the time being, be and remain under the exclusive management of the Manager of the Institute.

Section IV.

Of Date 23ed Septembee, 1870.

Honorary Members.

Whereas the rules of the Societies incorporated under the New Zealand Institute Act provide for the election of Honorary Members of such Societies ; but inasmuch as such Honorary Members would not thereby become mem- bers of the New Zealand Institute, and whereas it is expedient to make provision for the election of Honorary Members of the New Zealand In- stitute, it is hereby declared

1st. Each Incorporated Society may, in the month of November next, nominate for election as Honorary Members of the New Zealand Institute three persons, and in the month of November in each succeeding year, one person, not residing in the colony. 2nd. The names, descriptions, and addresses of persons so nominated, together with the grounds on which their election as Honorary Members is recommended, shall be forthwith forwarded to the Manager of the New Zealand Institute, and shall by him be sub- mitted to the Governors at the next succeeding meeting. 3rd. From the persons so nominated, the Governors may select in the first year not more than nine, and in each succeeding year not more than three, who shall from thenceforth be Honorary Members of the New Zealand Institute, provided that the total number of Honorary Members shall not exceed thirty.

[lu I L I B R A R Y )%

xvi. New Zealand Institute.



Wellington Philosophical Society - 10th June, 1868.

Auckland Institute - - - 10th June, 18G8.

Philosophical Institute of Canterbuky 22nd October, 18G8.

Otago Institute - - 18th October, 1869.

Westland Institute - - - 21st December, 1874.

Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute - 31st March, 1875.

Southland Institute - 21st July, 1880.

Nelson Philosophical Society - - 20th December, 1888.



Office-bearers for 1888 : President W. M. Maskell, F.R.M.S. ; Vice- presidents- lion. G. R. Johnson, M.L.C., A. de B.Brandon; Council Charles Hulke, F.C.S., A. Iv. Newman, M.B., M.R.C.P., R. H. Govett, Sir James Hector, K.C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S., W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S., A. McKay, F.G.S., E. Tregear, F.R.G.S. ; Secretary mid Treasurer R. B. Gore ; Auditor W. E. Vaux.

Extracts from the Rules of the Wellington Philosophical Society.

5. Every member shall contribute annually to the funds of the Society the sum of one guinea.

6. The annual contribution shall be due on the first day of January in each year.

7. The sum of ten pounds may be paid at any time as a composition for life of the ordinary annual payment.

14. The time and place of the General Meetings of members of the Society shall be fixed by the Council and duly announced by the Secretary.

AUCKLAND INSTITUTE. Office-bearers for 1888 : I'nsident S. Percy Smith, F.R.G.S. ; Vice-presidents Professor F. D. Brown, B.Sc, Pro- fessor A. P. Thomas, F.L.S. ; ( 'ouncil C. Cooper, Rev. E. H. Gulliver, M.A., Hon. Colonel Haultain, E. A. Mackechnie, J. Martin, F.G.S., T. Peacock, M.H.R., Rev. A. G. Purchas, M.R.C.S.E., Rev. W. Tebbs, -I. I'.. Russell, J. A. Pond, Mr. Justice (lillies; Secretary and Treasurer T. F. Cheeseinan. F.L.S., F.Z.S. ; Auditor—}. Stewart.

Incorporated Societies. xvii.

Extract from the Rule* of the Auckland Institute.

1. Any person desiring to become a member of the Institute shall be proposed in writing by two members, and shall be ballotted for at the next meeting of the Council.

4. New members on election to pay one guinea entrance-fee, in addition to the annual subscription of one guinea, the annual subscriptions being payable in advance on the first day of April for the then current year.

5. Members may at any time become life-members by one payment of ten pounds ten shillings, in lieu of future annual subscriptions.

10. Annual General Meeting of the Society on the third Monday of February in each year. Ordinary Business Meetings are called by the Council from time to time.


Office-bearers for 1888 : President Professor F. W Haslarn, M.A. ; Vice-presidents G. Hogben, M.A. ; S. Hurst Seager, A.E.I.B.A. ; Hon. Treasurer— H. E. Webb, F.E.M.S. Hon. Secretary W. Dinwiddle ; Hon. Auditor C. E. Blakiston Councils- Professor Hutton, F.G.S., E. W. Feredav, F.G.S., T Crook, Professor C. H. H. Cook, M.A., W. H. Symes, M.D., E. M. Laing,M.A.

Extracts from the Rules of the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury.

21. The Ordinary Meetings of the Institute shall be held on the first Thursday of each month during the months from March to November inclusive.

35. Members of the Institute shall pay one guinea annually as a sub- scription to the funds of the Institute. The subscription shall be due on the first of November in every year. Any member whose subscription shall be twelve months in arrear shall cease to be a member of tbe Institute, but he may be restored by the Council if it sees fit.

37. Members may compound for all annual subscriptions of the current and future years by paying ten guineas.


Office-bearers for 1888: ■President Alex. Wilson, M.A. ; Vice-presidents F. E. Cbapman, Dr. de Zouche; Hon. Secretary G. M. Thomson, F.L.S. ; Ron. Treasurer— J. C. Thomson; Council D. Petrie, M.A., Professor Scott, C. Chilton, M.A., Dr. Hocken, Eev. H. Belcher, L.L.D., Professors Parker and Gibbons ; Auditor D. Brent, M.A.

Extracts from the Constitution and Rules of the Otago Institute.

2. Any person desiring to join the Society may be elected by ballot, on being proposed in writing at any meeting of the Council or Society by two members, and on payment of the annual subscription of one guinea for the year then current.

5. Members may at any time become life-members by one payment of ten pounds and ten shillings in lieu of future annual subscriptions.

xviii. New Zealand Institute.

8. An Annual General Meeting of the members of the Society shall be held in January in each year, at which meeting not less than ten members must be present, otherwise the meeting shall be adjourned by the members present from time to time, until the requisite number of members is present.

(5.) The session of the Otago Institute shall be during the winter months, from May to October, both inclusive.


Office-beakers for 1888 : President Rev. H. G. Gould ; Vice-president Jno. Nicholson ; Treasurer A. H. King ; Com- mittee— J. N. Smythe, R. Cross, C. F. A. Broad, M. L. Moss, G. J. Eoberts, E. B. Sammons, J. W. Souter, Captain Bignell ; G. Clarkson, J. P. Will ; Secretary Henry Weston.

Extracts from the Rules of the Westland Institute.

3. The Institute shall consist : (1) Of life-members, i.e., persons who have at any one time made a donation to the Institute of ten pounds ten shillings or upwards ; or persons who, in reward of special services rendered to the Institute, have been unanimously elected as such by the Committee or at the general half-yearly meeting. (2) Of members who pay two pounds two shillings each year. (3) Of members paying smaller sums, not less than ten shillings.

5. The Institute shall hold a half-yearly meeting on the third Monday in the months of December and June.


Office-bearers for 1888 : President W. Colenso, F.E.S., F.L.S. ; Vice-president J. Goodall, C.E. ; Council R. C. Harding, H. Hill, W. I. Spencer, E. Lamb, T. C. Moore, W. Wood ; Hon. Secretary, Treasurer, and Curator of Museum A. Hamilton; Auditor T. K. Newton.

Extracts from the Rules of the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute.

3. The annual subscription for each member shall be one guinea, payable in advance on the first day of January in every year.

4. Members may at any time become life-members by one payment of ten pounds ten shillings in lieu of future annual subscriptions.

(4.) The session of the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute shall be during the winter months from May to October, both inclusive ; and general meetings shall be held on the second Monday in each of those six months, at 8 p.m.


Office-bearers for 1887: President Ven. Archdeacon Stocker ; Vice-president A. High ton, 15. A. ; Council Messrs. Bailey, McLean, C. Tanner, Dr. Galbraith, and Or. Closs ; Treasurer E. Robertson ; Secretary E. Webber.

Incorporated Societies. xix.


Office-bearers for 1888 : President Dr. L. Boor, ; Vice- presidents The Bishop of Nelson and A. S. Atkinson ; Secretary Dr. Coleman ; Treasurer Dr. Hudson ; Council Dr. Mackie, J. Holloway, Dr. Cressey, G. Ashcroft, and R. T. Kingsley ; Curator— R. T. Kingsley.

Extracts from the Rules of the Nelson Philosophical Society.

4. That members shall be elected by ballot.

6. That the annual subscription shall be one guinea.

7. Tbat the sum of ten guineas may be paid in composition of the annual subscription.

16. That the meetings be held monthly.

23. The papers read before the Society shall be immediately delivered to the Secretary.





18 8 7.


Art. I. On the Freshwater Infusoria of the Wellington District. By W. M. Maskell, F.R.M.S.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 30th November, 1887.]

Plates I., II., III., IV.

The following paper is in continuation of that published in vol. xix. of the " Transactions," and contains some of the observa- tions made since last year by the Microscopical Section of the Wellington Philosophical Society, Messrs. W. F. Barraud, A. Brandon, C. P. Powles, T. W. Kirk, and the writer.

As before, the work has been strictly confined to " fresh- water"' types. Most of the animals herein considered as new belong to recognised genera : the exception being Thurophora hicens, which seemed undoubtedly to present sufficiently clear generic differences.

In the " Journal of the Boyal Microscopical Society " for February, 1887, Professor A. C. Stokes, of New Jersey, in an account of some new American Infusoria, remarks that it is rare to find in America forms which are also found in European fresh water. The experience of the compilers of the present paper leads to quite the contrary view, as regards the New Zea- land animalcules. Probably the ambition of every " systematic " observer in any branch of Zoology or Botany is to discover some new species : and this, laudable as it doubtless is to a proper extent, has unfortunately led to a multiplication of specific dis- tinctions and names, often on the slenderest grounds, which subsequent investigation will have to largely diminish, at some trouble to students. The members of the Wellington Microsco- pical Section have steadily endeavoured to resist this tendency, believing that much less error and confusion will result by neglecting the frequently most minute differences from Euro- pean types observable in almost every Infusorian examined. Examples of this may be found in such forms as Rhipidodendron

4 Transactions. Zoology.

huxleyi, Amphileptus anser, Metopus sigmoides, in our former paper, or Monas irregularis, Codosiga botrytis, etc., in the present one. There are certainly minute points of difference in such as these which might tempt some observers to raise them, if not to specific, at least to " variety," rank. But, in truth, there is very often no absolute stability even in the same individuals amongst the Infusoria ; and we have thought it best to avoid to the utmost any more cumbering of scientific classification and nomenclature than was absolutely necessary. The couple of dozen animalcules herein set down as new species are considered to be sufficiently deserving of the distinction.

But Professor Stokes's statement as to the New Jersey Infusoria, compared with what has just been said, raises a question as to the reason for the identities observed between the New Zealand and the European forms. It may be remarked that similar identities appear to be noticeable also amongst the freshwater Algas, as several of our Desinidieae and Diatomaceae are found at both sides of the globe, and many others present differences so trifling as to be unimportant. That specific similarity should be so rare as Professor Stokes declares it between two countries in the same hemisphere, as New Jersey and France or England, and so frequent in two so nearly anti- podal as England and New Zealand, is not a little curious ; and it becomes still more so if, as seems to be the case, the differences in the " higher" zoological and botanical orders and families are in a reverse ratio. The " higher" American fauna and flora approximate to the European much more than the New Zealand fauna and flora do. It is, therefore, not quite clear why the microscopical forms of animal and vegetable life should not follow the same lines. The answer might, possibly, be found in an extension of research, leading to comparisons between countries of about the same latitude and climate. Yet New Jersey, France, and New Zealand, are not, in these respects, very differently situated.

Catalogue op Infusoria.

( 'lass I. FLAGELLATA.

Order. Flagellata-Pantostomata.

Genus Monas.

Monas irregularis, Perty. Wellington, Hutt Valley, Wainui, Karori.

Monas claviculns, sp. nov. Plate I., fig. 1, a, b.

Body elongate, rounded and broad anteriorly, tapering to a point posteriorly, plastic and variable in form, nearly five times longer than broad when extended ; surface punctate except at

fetttsmfftrms Item %tn\nnh fttsttfnhi, Vol. xx pi. i.





Maskell. On Freshwater Infusoria. 5

the anterior end, where there is a smooth area. Contractile vesicle single, sub-central. Flagellum single, as long as the extended body. Colour white ; motion rather slow.

Length ^jo inch = 29 it, extended.

Hutt Valley, W. M. Maskell.

The posterior tapering, smooth anterior area, and general nail-shaped form distinguish this animalcule.

Genus Oikomonas. Oikomonas termo, James-Clark. Wellington.

Genus Dendromonas. Dendromonas producta, sp. nov. Plate I., fig. 2, a, b.

Animalcules rounded posteriorly ; anterior border oblique, slightly concave, produced at the angles to a point, which is more or less visible according to the position of the animalcule (fig. 2, b). Zoodendrium slender, translucent, erect, irregularly branched but usually only dichotomous at the tip of the main rachis. Flagella two, uneven in length. Contractile vesicle single, sub-central. Endoplast posterior.

Average total length of zoodendrium ^i^ inch = 90 it ; main rachis usually longer than the branches. Length of zooids J^ inch = 5-7 ix.

Otaki, W. M. Maskell.

The known species of this genus are all more or less pyri- form, and show nothing of the oblique concave anterior edge with produced angles of this species.

Genus Cephalothamnium.

Cephalothamnium coronatum, sp. nov. Plate I., fig. 3.

Animalcules elongate-ovate, situated in a cluster at the extremity of a long, slender, stiff, translucent pedicle : as many as twenty sometimes in a cluster. Flagella two, unequal in length. Near the bases of the flagella is a ring or coronet of very minute granules, sometimes almost like spines. Contractile vesicle single, sub-central. Endoplast not observed.

Average length of pedicle, 3^ inch = 70 il ; length of zooids,

2T00 inch = 10 i«-

Hutt Valley, W.